R-39 / SS-N-20 gallery

The range of SS-N-20 Sturgeon was about 8,300 km, so it could be launched from the Arctic Circle and reach targets within the United States. This allowed the launching submarines to be almost invulnerable to any counterattack.
The missile had an inertial guidance system and a circular error probability (CEP) of about 600 meters. A single Typhoon class submarine could hypothetically attack 200 different targets with a total power of 40 megatons, enough to wipe out a whole country.
Under the START I and START II agreements, some of these missiles had to be dismantled during the 1990s, as was the case with some Typhoon class submarines. The rest of the missiles were finally deactivated in 2004.
The R-39 missile’s launch system was the D-19, consisting of a gas generator that ejected the missile from its launch tube. Then a series of engines generated a gaseous envelope around the missile that decreased the friction with the water during the ascent to the surface, where the boost engine ignited for the flight.

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